Principles of Endocrine Physiology…What is an Islet Cell?

The INTRAFITT Individualized Nutrition and Exercise Program was developed and established in California- 1992 in an effort to educate individuals seeking optimal levels of health, fitness and performance on the effect that diet and exercise has on the major regulatory systems of the human body (Nervous System and the Endocrine System) and their consequential effects on the Re-Programming Aspects of the Human Body.
The INTRAFITT Program concepts and applications are 100% valid and applicable and have been accepted entirely by the Scientific Community currently exploring the dual science of “Diet and Exercise Neuroendocrinology” and “P.N.E.I” (Psycho-Neuro-Endocrino-Immunology) and are supported by a myriad of abstract studies and published excerpts such as the following taken from the text book entitled Principles OF Physiology / General Principles Of Endocrine Physiology.

This text may be purchased at: http://www.amazon.com/Principles-Physiology-Robert-M-Berne/dp/0323008135

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLET OF LANGERHANS

The “primary” pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon are two of the most powerful metabolic regulators concerning the metabolism of body fat, the maintenance of blood glucose levels and the production and maintenance of lean body proteins. As you will discover, the insulin/glucagon axis is perhaps the most important focus in the development of safe and effective weight management, health enhancement and performance nutrition programs.

The islet cells of the pancreas are composed of 60% beta cells (b-cells), the source of insulin and 25% alpha cells (acells), the source of glucagon. The remaining 15% of the islet cells secrete the peptides somatostatin, from the delta cells (d-cells) and pancreatic polypeptide from the F-cells. The strategic location of the islet cells reflect their functional role. Insulin, glucagon and the pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to incoming nutrients from the diet as well as from gastrointestinal secretions, which ultimately reflect the concurrent nutritional status of an individual.

Additionally, the location of the islet cells force their secretions into the pancreatic vein, which integrates at the hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver (the central organ in nutrient traffic).

Insulin and glucagon coordinate the direction of incoming nutrients from the diet via the hepatic portal vein. Insulin and glucagon also control and direct the flow of endogenous substrate (once it has been broken down and released), such as stored body fat, glycogen and amino acids, derived from the protein structures of the body.

Since the liver is the first organ to come in contact with insulin and glucagon (once these hormones have been released by the islet cells), it is therefore exposed to higher concentrations of these hormones, then are the peripheral tissues (muscle tissue and adipose tissue). Consequently, the liver can very efficiently modulate the release of these two hormones to the peripheral tissues, therefore allowing for more or less of the hormones to circulate throughout the body.

NOTE: Due to the liver’s high exposure to insulin, it should be clear as to why fatty deposits can develop so efficiently within the liver thus contributing to the very prevalent condition know as Fatty Liver Disease.

Because Insulin and glucagon are secreted together and act reciprocally it is perhaps more beneficial to focus on the ratio of insulin and glucagon concentration in blood plasma, rather than the absolute concentration of each hormone respectively.

You can reach me with your questions at gladiator@intrafitt.com or visit us at www.intrafitt.com

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Hydration & Hunger…Is there a Link?

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Often times, people will neglect to drink adequate amounts of water throughout the day, either because they are not thirsty or perhaps they simply do not care to drink water and may prefer to drink coffee, tea or colas instead.  Although drinking the latter beverages in moderate amounts may not introduce health problems, it should be noted that the body performs best when there are less chemicals, additives and preservatives (which are often times found in processed beverages) in the foods and beverages that nourish it.

New scientific evidence now suggests that thirst can be mistaken for hunger.  In the hypothalamus of the brain, there is a region referred to as the satiety center (the center of the brain that is triggered when blood sugar levels are within normal ranges) which when activated causes a feeling of fullness and satisfaction.  There is also a hypothalamic region referred to as the feeding drive, that when triggered causes hunger and a subsequent desire to eat.  Throughout the course of the day, physiological circumstances send vacillating stimuli to these sensory mechanisms in the brain causing us to feel either hungry or full.  There is now evidence that suggests a direct correlation between the thirst drives and the feeding drives in the brain.  Even in cases of mild to moderate dehydration, sugar cravings and food cravings have been observed.  In fact, recent speculation indicates that nearly 40% of the American population suffers daily from a false sense of hunger due to moderate levels of dehydration.  Other research has shown that even mild dehydration may slow the metabolic rate by as much as 3-5%.

Other metabolic aberrations linked to dehydration include:

  • Increased back and joint pain in up to 80% of the people suffering from these symptoms
  • Increased sugar cravings especially in the evening
  • Daytime fatigue
  • Decrease in motor skills, concentration and retention
  • Increased risk of colon, breast and bladder cancer

Remember, the recommended water intake for normal sedentary individuals is a minimum of 96 ounces or three quarts per day.

It will behoove you to drink water…so don’t delay!

In health & honor,

Will Smith AKA Thunder of the American Gladiators

Just a reminder…When it comes to achieving optimal health, fitness and performance, the INTRAFITT Program is second to none because its concepts and applications favorably impact each and every aspect of our triune existence (mind, body & spirit).  This simply means that not only will you feel, look and perform at your very best on a physical level, you will also achieve a heightened ability in your cognitive thinking as well! Send me an email with any questions: gladiator@intrafitt.com

PS- Take advantage of our Fit & Lean Forever Program on special now.  Use finallyfit for $99 discount.  It’s only $.27 a day with 365 day access to all your meal plans and exercise protocols.  You can even talk to me if you wish. http://www.intrafitt.com/programsproducts.aspx?category=180

Look forward to hearing from you!

Water and Human Performance

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I promised you a little more information on the subject of Water and how it relates to Human Metabolism and Performance…so picking up from our last blog…I want to explain that during periods of highly strenuous exercise, the body can lose as much as four and one half pounds of fluid.  An endurance athlete may lose as much as 4% of his entire body weight to the loss of water primarily in the form of sweat.

When preparing to exercise, three factors should be strongly considered: 1) the temperature of the exercise environment.  2) the hydration level of the body prior to exercise.  And, 3) the relative humidity of the exercise environment.  Although the first two reasons listed are fairly obvious, considerations regarding pre-exercise hydration, the third reason may need further explanation.  If you have spent any amount of time training and/or competing on the eastern coast of the United States during the summer months, you should have a pretty good idea of how humid it can get.  Relative Humidity is basically the measure of water vapor in the air.  Although this may not seem like an important factor in exercise performance, it is quite possibly the most significant limiting factor when exercising on a humid day.  For example when there is a relative humidity of 100%, the air is considered to be completely saturated with water.  As a result, the body’s cooling mechanisms are severely affected due to the fact that sweat cannot evaporate efficiently.  When this happens the body’s internal temperature can reach dangerous levels, and may result in hyperthermia.

The primary reason to consider proper hydration and rehydration before, during, and after exercise is the need to maintain proper blood plasma viscosity and to encourage normal circulation and cooling of the body.  When an individual begins sweating profusely there is a subsequent decrease in the blood plasma levels.   As a result, blood viscosity increases and therefore increases the workload of the heart which cold potentially result in a heart attack.  In order to help prevent these conditions,  aside from drinking water throughout the entire exercise session, it is recommended that 2-3 cups of water are ingested prior to exercise.  By properly hydrating the body before exercise, the body’s ability to sweat is increased thereby delaying the onset of dehydration while enabling a more subtle rise in body temperature.

“The recommended water intake for normal sedentary individuals is a minimum of 96 ounces or three quarts per day.  For physically active individuals, the minimum recommended water intake is twice that of the sedentary person or six quarts per day!!!”

ifitt billboard

Just a reminder…When it comes to achieving optimal health, fitness and performance, the INTRAFITT Program is second to none because its concepts and applications favorably impact each and every aspect of our triune existence (mind, body & spirit).  This simply means that not only will you feel, look and perform at your very best on a physical level, you will also achieve a heightened ability in your cognitive thinking as well! Send me an email with any questions: gladiator@intrafitt.com

PS- Take advantage of our Fit & Lean Forever Program on special now.  Use finallyfit for $99 discount.  It’s only $.27 a day with 365 day access to all your meal plans and exercise protocols.  You can even talk to me if you wish. www.intrafitt.com

In health & honor,
Will Smith aka/Thunder of the American Gladiators

The Role of Water in Human Metabolism & Performance

ImageAside from water being classified as an essential nutrient, I feel that it deserves special attention due to the fact that most people underestimate its importance in human nutrition.  One interesting fact is that the human body can survive for up to five weeks without protein, carbohydrates and/or fats, and only five days without water.

Rarely do we ever see an adequate water intake included as part of an individual’s regular dietary regime.  In fact, it has been determined that 75% of the American population is chronically dehydrated with further speculation that this finding likely applies to half the world population.

As far as the genders are concerned, it should be noted that although men have a higher percentage of water contained in their bodies than women (primarily due to a higher lean body mass) it does not make the water requirements for women any less important than those for men.

Although people normally drink water in order to satisfy the thirst drives brought on by neural innervation, there are other instances (especially before, during and after strenuous exercise) when water intake should be strongly considered.

BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF WATER:
Water performs three important biological functions in the human body: it provides structure and form to the body also known as its tugor; it provides the fluid environment both intracellularly required for normal cell metabolism and water regulates the temperature of the body.

Water can be supplied to the body by actually drinking water and other beverages high in water content such as tea and coffee, preformed water contained in foods, especially low calorie fruits and vegetables such as melons, strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, etc. and metabolic water which is a by product of cellular oxidation.

More about Water and Human Performance…next time!

Just a reminder…When it comes to achieving optimal health, fitness and performance, the INTRAFITT Program is second to none because its concepts and applications favorably impact each and every aspect of our triune existence (mind, body & spirit).  This simply means that not only will you feel, look and perform at your very best on a physical level, you will also achieve a heightened ability in your cognitive thinking as well! Send me an email with any questions: gladiator@intrafitt.com

PS- Take advantage of our Fit & Lean Forever Program on special now.  Use finallyfit for $99 discount.  It’s only $.27 a day with 365 day access to all your meal plans and exercise protocols.  You can even talk to me if you wish. www.intrafitt.com

In health & honor,
Will Smith aka/Thunder of the American Gladiator days

Now What? I HAVE REACHED A FITNESS PLATEAU by Thunder aka Will Smith

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I think I reached a Fitness Plateau! What causes those Fitness Plateaus and How to Overcome those Plateaus.  Well, ever wonder if your diet and/or exercise program could be working better than it is?  Maybe you should be eating fewer calories or less fat.  Maybe you should be exercising longer and/or harder.  Or maybe, there is a new supplement or product on the market that will yield the exact results you are looking for.  Now, if you could just find it.

If you’ve ever hit a fitness plateau, or think you have, there is no need to worry, you are not alone.  In fact, if you ask anyone who has been exercising for any length of time, they will probably tell you that fitness plateaus are inevitable and are perhaps the single most reason why people turn to a “Quick Fix” mindset or just abandon their efforts altogether.  Nevertheless, it is important to understand the difference between a “true” fitness plateau and the body’s intermittent biological adaptations.  Look at it this way, the human body is very much like an automobile, if you want to increase its power and efficiency, you need to modify the engine.  This may mean increasing the size of the engine and its fuel burning capabilities.  Similarly, this would be the same as increasing your lean muscle tissue and the fat burning enzymes contained within.

Your next question may be, how will I know if I’m increasing my body’s lean muscle tissue and fat burning enzymes effectively?  Simple, all you need to do is pay attention to your energy, strength and concentration levels throughout the day and pay attention to how soundly you sleep throughout the night.  Consistent levels of energy, strength and concentration, combined with a lack of sugar and food cravings, are a direct indication that your blood sugar is being properly regulated.  When this happens, your body begins to RE-Program itself to be fit and lean for the rest of your life.  If on the other hand, you find yourself skipping breakfast, snacking late in the evening, craving sugary foods and/or feeling tired and lethargic before, during and/or after exercise, your blood sugar is most likely irregular.  Under these conditions, it is probable that your body is being programmed to store fat efficiently while using various protein structures of the body as an energy source to fuel the brain and nervous system.  Therefore, if you seriously aspire to achieve and maintain optimal levels of energy, strength and concentration throughout the day, while increasing muscle tone and eliminating food and sugar cravings, there is only ONE alternative.

You must learn and apply the Six Elements of Fitness.  I will talk about that next time.

I can be reached at gladiator@intrafitt.com or call us at 704-781-0400.  Our Fit and Lean Forever Program is only $199.  Use coupon code finallyfit for discount.  I guarantee you results.  Look forward to hearing from you.  http://www.intrafitt.com/programsproducts.aspx?category=180

In health and honor,
Will Smith aka Thunder of the American Gladiators

 

Do You Know Your Fat Burning Zone?

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I am continually asked by my clients “How do I know if I am burning fat?” Well, that is why I suggest wearing a heart rate monitor. It is the key to optimum efficiency during a cardiovascular exercise. The objective is to work smarter not harder. Think of a heart rate monitor as a tachometer (a device that measures RPM) for the body. For example, the speedometer in your car tells you how fast you are moving but does not reflect how hard the engine is working. The tachometer on the other hand, tells you exactly how fast the engine is turning at any given speed RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). The same is true with a heart rate monitor. Although it does not tell you how fast you are walking or running, it does indicate how fast your heart is beating BPM (Beats Per Minute).

In order for fat to burn efficiently once it enters the muscles, a constant and steady supply of oxygen must be present at all times. If the heart rate and/or level of exercise intensity is too high, the muscles will tend to rely more heavily on sugar instead of fat due to a lack of oxygen (also known as oxygen debt). If on the other hand the heart rate and/or corresponding level of exercise intensity is too low, your will most likely make inefficient use of your time, slow the rate of fat loss and decelerate the development of intra-muscular changes needed to “Reprogram” the body to be fit and lean.

How do we know how fast our heart should be beating while exercising?
The most efficient way to determine your heart rate is to take your age and subtract it from 220. Once that is determined you can then use the Fat Burning Formula of exercising between 60% – 75% of your maximum heart rate. For instance: A 45 year old person (just starting an exercise program) the appropriate target heart rate during exercise should be 220 – 45(age) = 175 Maximum Heart Rate …175 X 60% = 105. 105 would be the Target Heart Rate During Exercise. Of course we then would discuss the FITT factor which is proper Frequency, Intensity, Time & Type of exercise.

For any questions, I can be reached at http://www.intrafitt.com
gladiator@intrafitt.com

In health & honor,
William Smith aka/Thunder of the American Gladiators

Check out all our nutrition programs and on line certifications at http://www.intrafitt.com

INTRAFITT Sports Performance & Training Info

Folks,  I can’t wait to share this information with you…

Welcome to the INTRAFITT Sports Performance Nutrition & Training Curriculum!  We are elated to offer this new and improved conditioning package as the basis and foundation for education and results in the world of sports performance!  In order to excel in this world, you must be able to visualize victory because losing is not an option!  In order to achieve and maintain this level of focus and expectancy, you must adopt the proper attitude!   If you intend to rise up and become the very best you can be; you must learn to overcome mental and physical weakness while exchanging complacencyfor commitment, excuses for excellence and disregard for disciplineanddetermination“....no matter what!

If you feel you have what it takes to engage in the INTRAFITT Sports Performance Nutrition & Training Curriculum, shoot me an email… will@intrafitt.com

Looking forward to hearing from you.

In strength and honor,
Will Smith, aka Thunder of American Gladiators

Sports-Performance-rollover

www.intrafitt.com