Principles of Endocrine Physiology…What is an Islet Cell?

The INTRAFITT Individualized Nutrition and Exercise Program was developed and established in California- 1992 in an effort to educate individuals seeking optimal levels of health, fitness and performance on the effect that diet and exercise has on the major regulatory systems of the human body (Nervous System and the Endocrine System) and their consequential effects on the Re-Programming Aspects of the Human Body.
The INTRAFITT Program concepts and applications are 100% valid and applicable and have been accepted entirely by the Scientific Community currently exploring the dual science of “Diet and Exercise Neuroendocrinology” and “P.N.E.I” (Psycho-Neuro-Endocrino-Immunology) and are supported by a myriad of abstract studies and published excerpts such as the following taken from the text book entitled Principles OF Physiology / General Principles Of Endocrine Physiology.

This text may be purchased at: http://www.amazon.com/Principles-Physiology-Robert-M-Berne/dp/0323008135

ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLET OF LANGERHANS

The “primary” pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon are two of the most powerful metabolic regulators concerning the metabolism of body fat, the maintenance of blood glucose levels and the production and maintenance of lean body proteins. As you will discover, the insulin/glucagon axis is perhaps the most important focus in the development of safe and effective weight management, health enhancement and performance nutrition programs.

The islet cells of the pancreas are composed of 60% beta cells (b-cells), the source of insulin and 25% alpha cells (acells), the source of glucagon. The remaining 15% of the islet cells secrete the peptides somatostatin, from the delta cells (d-cells) and pancreatic polypeptide from the F-cells. The strategic location of the islet cells reflect their functional role. Insulin, glucagon and the pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to incoming nutrients from the diet as well as from gastrointestinal secretions, which ultimately reflect the concurrent nutritional status of an individual.

Additionally, the location of the islet cells force their secretions into the pancreatic vein, which integrates at the hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver (the central organ in nutrient traffic).

Insulin and glucagon coordinate the direction of incoming nutrients from the diet via the hepatic portal vein. Insulin and glucagon also control and direct the flow of endogenous substrate (once it has been broken down and released), such as stored body fat, glycogen and amino acids, derived from the protein structures of the body.

Since the liver is the first organ to come in contact with insulin and glucagon (once these hormones have been released by the islet cells), it is therefore exposed to higher concentrations of these hormones, then are the peripheral tissues (muscle tissue and adipose tissue). Consequently, the liver can very efficiently modulate the release of these two hormones to the peripheral tissues, therefore allowing for more or less of the hormones to circulate throughout the body.

NOTE: Due to the liver’s high exposure to insulin, it should be clear as to why fatty deposits can develop so efficiently within the liver thus contributing to the very prevalent condition know as Fatty Liver Disease.

Because Insulin and glucagon are secreted together and act reciprocally it is perhaps more beneficial to focus on the ratio of insulin and glucagon concentration in blood plasma, rather than the absolute concentration of each hormone respectively.

You can reach me with your questions at gladiator@intrafitt.com or visit us at www.intrafitt.com

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